There are many challenges associated with the idea of space exploration that need solving. Additionally, there are many opportunities which will potentially change the way society functions.
Supplying drugs for astronauts on long duration spaceflight
Storage space is limited and the possibility of replenishing stocks through space launches is expensive and time consuming. The stored medications themselves may also change during spaceflight reducing drug efficacy or break down into potentially toxic components. It is also difficult to predict what treatments will be necessary in space missions that will number many years.
Limitation of food and fuel resources
The duration of space travel is dependent on the amount of resources (food, fuel, water, oxygen). In order to extend trips substantially or indefinitely, methods must be discovered that help generate resources from the waste products generated during travel or use of the natural resources of any new planet.
Chemistry in space: novel processing opportunities
There is also another aspect that needs to be satisfied and this is about the pure scientific advancement of society. Can we use the conditions provided by the outer space as a novel set of processing conditions to combine matter. Associated to this idea are several concepts that have the common denominator of producing functional materials (novel, eventually) in an efficient manner.